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Internet Of Things (IOT)

  • Definition: The Internet of Things (IoT) is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals or people that are provided with unique identifiers and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction. For example:
  1. Washing machines with Wi-Fi networking capabilities can connect themselves to home Wi-Fi. Once these machines are so connected they can be controlled  through machine manufacturer mobile APP from anywhere in the world.
  2. India’s living legend of cricket appearing in an Advertisement for water



purifierinforms that, the water purifier is Wi-Fi enabled. When the  purifying  agents deplete in the machine it connects to home Wi-Fi and informs the service agents of the company.

All above examples are from products being sold in India.


  • Future: Gartner, the technology researcher has projected that by 2020 the IOT business across the world would increase to USD 1.9 Trillion. In rupee terms at current exchange rate (INR::UDS=67.50::1) it comes to a staggering Rs. 1,34,0,00,00,00,00,000.00 or keeping it simple virtually equal to India’s GDP  today.
  • Applications: Some of the applications are as follows:
  • All home appliancesto be connected and that shall create a virtual home.
    • Home owners can keep track of all activities in house through their hand held devices.
    • Home security CCTVis also monitored through hand held devices.
  • Office machines shall be connected through net.
  • Human resource managers shall be able to see how many people have  had a cup of coffee from vending machine and how many are present.
    • How many printouts are being generated through office printer?
    • Governments can keep track of resource utilizations / extra support needed.
  • Under SWACHH mission government can tag all dustbins with IOT sensors. They (dustbins) generate a message once they are full. Being connected to wifi, they can intimate the cleaning supervisor of Municipal Corporation so that BIN can be emptied.
    • As a research study, individuals have got themselves implanted with electronic chips in their bodies. This chip allows him / her to connect to home / office wifi. Once connected person can enter home / office and perform designated function. This chip becomes individual’s authentication token.



  • Internet of thing is an evolving phenomenon. The nature of risk is carries is  based on academic logics and available practical experiences. The risk listed are those which are most discussed for IOT today.


As technology evolves issues shall crop up. The risk due  to IOT  has various facets  to  it:

•Risk to Product manufacturer

  • Manufacturers may be out of business in few years if IOT becomes  a necessary product feature.
  • Data storage and analytics: The manufacturers will to ensure the huge datagenerated from IOT devices is kept secured. Hacking / loosing this data may be distractors for entity as well as the individual to whom it relates to.

•Risk to user of these products

  • Security: This is the greatest risk due to IOT. As home devices / office equipment’s are connected to network they shall be hit by all network related risks, including hacking, virus attacks, stealing confidential data



  • Privacy, autonomy and control: There is a huge risk that individuals may lose control over their personal life. Their personal life can be hacked and made public. The other major concern is who has the ownership of this personal data. For example: A person daily eats a burger at 12.00 in night and takes bottle of chilled hard drink with it. She/he uses his/ her mobile to operate the griller and refrigerator. The griller and  refrigerator  are  both sold by say XYZ ltd. This data is available on XYZ database.
    • Who owns this information?
    • The data can be used by insurance companies  to  deny  an insurance claim saying the person was a habitual drinker or raise  his / her medical insurance premium as the person is having a risky life style.

Above illustrates the big risk IOT may create for individuals.

  • Intentional obsolescence of devices: This may happen due to -
    • Companies which want to bring a new product may force users to dump the old products. This they can do by disabling the operating software of old product.
    • A manufacturer is bought out by another manufacturer. The buyer does not support old products sold.

•Technology Risk

  • Platform fragmentation and lack of technical standards are situations where the variety of IoT devices, in terms of both hardware variations and differences in the software running on them, makes the task of developing applications tough.

•Environmental Risk due to Technology

  • These studies are being done to see the impact on house air quality, due to use of heavy earth metals in devices. There no definitive data available as of now, but the risk is being considered.

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